This course surveys Western art and architecture from the Paleolithic era to the end of the Middle Ages. Training in visual analysis is emphasized, as are the historical context, religious beliefs and social conditions in which the artwork was produced. This is primarily a lecture class, though discussion is encouraged. Requirements include examinations and short papers. This counts toward the introductory course requirement for the major. No prerequisite. Offered every semester.

This course surveys Western art and architecture from the Renaissance to the present. Framing the study of art history within a social context, this course will provide students with the tools for understanding style and interpreting meaning in individual works of art. Although this is a lecture format, discussion is encouraged. This counts toward the introductory course requirement for the major. No prerequisite. Offered every semester.

This course introduces students to the study of the practical and theoretical principles governing architecture. Architectural traditions from the ancient through the contemporary period will be considered. This counts toward the introductory course requirement for the major. No prerequisite.

This course explores the highlights of Asian art, focusing on India, China and Japan. The class also will briefly cover Central Asia, Bengal, Nepal, Tibet, Thailand, Cambodia, Java and Korea. Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Taoism and other Asian beliefs will be explained in the context of how they affect Asian art. Types of artwork examined will include painting, sculpture, decorative arts and some architecture. Class requirements include four one-hour slide examinations and other assignments. This counts toward the introductory course requirement for the major. No prerequisite.

This introductory course surveys the history of Islamic art and architecture between the 7th and 16th centuries. Students will explore the rich visual and artistic traditions that developed and thrived under the caliphates and dynasties that ruled medieval Spain, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. They will also investigate thematic issues central to the discipline of Islamic art history, including the function of ornament, the development of calligraphy in visual culture, the adoption and abstention of figural representation, and the impact of Orientalism. A diverse array of artistic media and techniques are examined, including painting, sculpture, textiles, manuscripts and architecture. Students will also be introduced to art-historical research strategies, and methods for writing about art. This course counts toward the foundation-level requirement for the major. No prerequisite.

This course explores the diversity of African art created on the continent and throughout the diaspora, from antiquity to the contemporary period. Students will examine artworks from both north and south of the Sahara representing an array of media and techniques, including sculpture, architecture, painting, photography, textiles and performance art. Class sessions will combine lecture and discussion to investigate key topics such as the significance of visual abstraction; art’s role in constructing (and contesting) ideas about the body, gender and sexuality; and the relationship between art and politics in the colonial and postcolonial periods. Ongoing debates about the problematic categories of “tribal” and “tourist” art in Africa, as well as “primitivism” in the West, will be examined in relation to questions of authenticity and appropriation. We will also critically evaluate the political and aesthetic contexts in which African art has been exhibited in museums. This course counts toward the introductory course requirement for the major, and students will be introduced to methods of art historical analysis and writing. No prerequisite.

No other field has been the subject of so many different types of writing, nor is any other academic field based on such a dichotomy of the ethereal and the material. Art history is an object-based field, but with an elusive mystery at its core regarding the nature of the visual arts and creativity. This course is designed to give students an opportunity to expand their knowledge of the many modes of writing about art, including theory bases and ethics. We will examine works of art in the context of their presentation and interpretation in written form. Reading and writing assignments will include description and analysis of individual works of art, art criticism, catalogue entries, art in fiction and scholarly writing. Effective presentation of ideas and considerations of style in writing will also be an important focus of this course. This counts toward the intermediate course requirement for the major. Any art history course is recommended.

This course examines the art and architecture of Greece from Bronze Age Crete and Mycenaean palaces of the mainland to the historical age of Greece and the extended Greek cultures of southern Italy and the Hellenistic world. Special attention will be given to the development of Greek standards of beauty and the role of beauty in Greek culture. The format is lecture and discussion. This counts toward the intermediate course and ancient art requirements for the major. Offered every other year. Any art history or classics course is recommended.

This course examines the art and architecture of Rome from its Etruscan and Latin origins through the decline of the Roman Empire. As Rome grew from a city to a world empire, Romans employed the arts in a wide variety of contexts, ranging from the domestic and funereal to the political and imperial, with art and architecture often used in the service of ritual or propaganda. The format is lecture and discussion. This counts toward the intermediate course and ancient art requirements for the major. Offered every other year. Any art history or classics course is recommended.

This course examines Netherlandish, French and German arts of the 15th and 16th centuries, including artists such as the Limbourg brothers, Jan Van Eyck and Albrecht Dürer. During lectures and class discussions, students will examine the visual arts of this period in relation to political power, religious upheaval, social class, gender and sexuality, and international trade. Specific topics include the transmission of style, the development of oil painting, the revolutionary expansion of the graphic arts and the impact of the Reformation. This course counts toward the intermediate and Renaissance/Baroque requirements for the major. Any art history course is recommended.

This course investigates the beginnings of Italian Renaissance art from the profound changes of the late 13th century through the 15th century. Artists and architects such as Giotto, Donatello, Masaccio, Alberti and Botticelli will be examined in relation to social, religious and political issues during lectures and class discussions. Specific topics include the exploration of illusionistic perspectives, the economics of art patronage, the social elevation of the artist, and the roles of art and architecture as defenses against plague. This class counts toward the intermediate and Renaissance/Baroque major requirements. Any art history course is recommended.

This course focuses on the art and architecture of the High Renaissance in Italy. The works of artists and architects such as Leonardo da Vinci, Bramante, Titian, Sofonisba Anguissola, Michelangelo and Raphael, among others, will be explored in depth. The canonical High Renaissance will be compared to the growing Mannerist movement in the 16th century. Issues such as patronage, politics, gender and artistic theory will be examined in lectures and class discussions to shed light on the varied artistic production of this period. This course counts toward the intermediate and Renaissance/Baroque requirements for the major. Any art history course is recommended.

This course focuses on the art and architecture of the 17th century, starting in Rome and spreading outward to other parts of Europe and the Americas. Lecture and class discussion will focus on artists including Caravaggio, Artemisia Gentileschi, Bernini, Rubens, Rembrandt and Poussin. We will explore the formal characteristics and historical context of Baroque art in relation to the Catholic Reformation and expansion of Protestantism, the global spread of European imperialism, the politics of absolute rule and revolution, and the economics of art markets and cultural exchange. This class counts toward the intermediate and Renaissance/Baroque requirements for the major. Any art history course is recommended.

This course addresses art produced in North America between colonialization and 1900. Students will examine the development of art within a broad social context by exploring the relationship between visual culture and race, gender and class. Specific topics will include genre and landscape painting, prints and photography, and the influence of European art academies. We will also address the relationship between art and slavery, war and industrialization. This course is the same as AMST 227D. The class must be taken as ARHS 227D to count towards the fine arts requirement. This class counts towards the modern/contemporary requirements for the ARHS major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111, AMST 108 or permission of instructor.

This course surveys the history of photography from the medium's invention in the 1830s to the present. Key issues will include the way photography functions as documentary evidence, demonstrates technological innovation, and is used as a means for artistic creativity. The role of digital imagery, social media, and the internet will also be addressed. Through lectures, critical readings, class presentations and discussions, students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the history of the medium within specific historical and cultural contexts. Emphasis will be given to the social history of photography in an international context. This class counts towards the modern/contemporary requirements for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111.

This course examines the visual representation of race between the early modern era and the present. We will consider how factors including indigenous material culture, slavery, immigration, migration, war and political activism have shaped visual culture and modern art. In addition to traditional forms of fine art, such as painting, sculpture, photography and prints, students will also consider cartoons, advertising, film and other forms of mass media. We will also address the relationship between race and museums, monuments and memorials. This class counts toward the modern/contemporary requirement for the art history major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111, AMST 108 or permission of instructor.

This course focuses on the evolution of modernism as an artistic practice and the emergence of the avant-garde as a social and political formation in Europe between 1880 and 1945. Among the themes to be considered are the relationship between art and technology, the cultural implications of "primitivism," and the significance of abstract and nonrepresentational art to modern expression. This class counts towards the modern/contemporary requirement for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 110 or 111.

Beginning with abstract expressionism, this course will critically address the development of high modernism in New York after World War II. Students will analyze the importance of American art criticism during the 1950s before tracing the resistance to associated ideologies as seen in the global emergence of pop art, minimalism, conceptual art, and feminist art. This class counts towards the modern/contemporary requirement for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 110 or 111.

This course concerns the arts of medieval Europe from the fourth to the 10th centuries. The class will learn about the major forms of architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts of the Middle Ages. Style and iconography will be considered within the cultural context of large societal movements, including monastic reform and pilgrimage. The secondary focus will be on information literacy and how to develop and write a research paper. The class format consists of lecture, discussion, debate and presentations. This counts toward the intermediate course and Medieval art requirements for the major. Prerequisite: any 100-level ARHS course.

This course explores the art and architecture of the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, from the founding of its capital, Constantinople, in 330 to the fall of the city in 1453. Following a chronological approach, the course introduces students to the appropriation and adaptation of long-established Roman ceremonial, iconographic and architectural forms to serve a new, specifically Christian, empire. Students will trace the transmission of artistic ideas, forms and objects across cultural, geographic and religious borders, and will examine the ways in which trade, war and diplomacy impacted Byzantine art. This course counts toward the intermediate course and medieval art requirements for the major. Any art history course is recommended.

This course concerns the arts of medieval Europe from the fourth to the 10th centuries. The class will learn about the major forms of architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts of the Middle Ages. Style and iconography will be considered within the cultural context of large societal movements, including monastic reform and pilgrimage. The secondary focus will be on information literacy and how to develop and write a research paper. The class format consists of lecture, discussion, debate and presentations. This counts toward the intermediate course and Medieval art requirements for the major. Prerequisite: any 100-level ARHS course.

This course examines the extraordinary arts of China from the Paleolithic period (4000 BCE) through the 20th century. The class will learn about the rich traditions of jade, bronzes, lacquer, ceramics, textiles, painting, calligraphy, sculpture and architecture within their cultural context. Various forms of Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism and other beliefs will be explained in conjunction with how they affect Chinese art. This is primarily a lecture class, but discussion is encouraged. This counts toward the intermediate course requirement for the major. Prerequisite: Any 100-level ARHS course or previous coursework in Asian studies.

This course explores the arts of medieval northern Europe from the mid-13th through the early 16th centuries. The class will learn about the rich traditions of architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts from the Late Gothic period. Style and iconography will be considered within the cultural context of large societal movements, including literacy, pilgrimage and chivalry. The class format will consist of lecture, discussion, debate and class presentations. The secondary focus will be on information literacy and how to develop and write a research paper. This counts toward the intermediate course and Medieval art requirements for the major. Prerequisite: Any 100-level ARHS course.

At the time when China faced its largest challenge in history in terms of sovereignty, dignity and culture, its art experienced importation of Western forms and aesthetics. The two artistic traditions clashed, coexisted and were integrated. Chinese artists then attempted to infuse their art with the cultural identity of China. To understand the artistic impact of the West and China's reaction to it, we will investigate this journey from its beginning, the Opium Wars to 1949, when China moved forward from a feudal empire to a republican nation in a turbulent century. This counts toward the intermediate course requirement for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111, 114 or permission of instructor.

The year 1949 was a watershed moment in 20th-century Chinese art, with the founding of the People's Republic of China. Art, therefore, experienced dramatic changes from the 1950s to the present. In this course, we will investigate the journey from ideologically oriented art to the art of the Cultural Revolution, and from the post-Mao period and the avant-garde movement to art in an era of urbanization in a global context. This counts as an intermediate level course for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111, 114 or permission of instructor.

China has a painting tradition that spans thousands of years, using mainly brush and ink on silk or paper. As different subject matter (mountains-and-waters, flowers-and-birds, and human figures) and techniques (ink, color and brushwork based in conjunction with calligraphy) developed, the artists’ practice was guided by underlying aesthetics. Starting in the Tang Dynasty, landscape painting went from a mere backdrop to an independent subject, reaching a height of realistic detail in the Song Dynasty. Literati painting was established in the Yuan Dynasty as a protest, but it would form the mainstream of painting in the Ming Dynasty, ultimately becoming orthodoxy in the Qing Dynasty, during which eccentric artists tried to both break and yet revive the older tradition. This intermediate-level course will investigate the history, cultural connotations and significance of Chinese painting in the landscape of world art. This course counts toward the intermediate course requirement for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111, 114 or permission of instructor.

This course provides an overview of the history, culture and art of Rome from antiquity to the 18th century, with some forays into modern Rome. Classroom instruction will complement visits to different sites in the city of Rome and its environs, Florence, Naples and Pompeii. Guest lectures will focus on specific issues in ancient, medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and modern art and architecture in Rome. We will examine the formation of great art collections like that of the Borghese Gallery, the Vatican Museums, and the Capitoline collections. Students will be expected to write about art from all historical epochs. This course is only open to students in the Kenyon-Rome program. This counts toward the intermediate course requirement for the major. ARHS 110 or 111 is highly recommended. Permission of instructor required. No prerequisite.

Beginning with Postmodernism, this course examines the primary themes of the expanding contemporary art scene since the late 20th century. Issues and movements addressed include installation art, neo-Expressionism, graffiti art, conceptual art and theory, performance and video art, the AIDS crisis and identity politics, and the globalized art market. The relationship between art and social issues is emphasized. As we will address a fairly short period of time, this course will combine a chronological and thematic approach. This counts toward the intermediate course and modern/contemporary requirements for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111.

This seminar serves as an introduction to the field of museum studies. Consisting primarily of readings, discussions, assigned papers and special projects, the course will historicize the role of the museum, analyze the nature of the museum audience and study the representation and display of different cultures. This counts toward the advanced course requirement for the major. Prerequisite: ARHS 111 and sophomore standing.

This seminar explores topics and issues relating to the history of ancient art and architecture. Assignments include seminar reports, class discussion and a research paper. This counts toward the advanced course requirement for the major. This course can be repeated up to two times for credit, so long as they cover different topics. Any course in art history or classics is recommended. Prerequisite: sophomore standing.

This advanced seminar will explore topics and issues of the study of medieval art and architecture. Topics covered include sacred and secular art in the late Middle Ages, pilgrimage art, and the art in late medieval and Tudor England. Assignments will include seminar reports, class discussion, and a research paper. Prerequisite: ARHS 110 or equivalent.

Various topics in the history of early modern art between the late 13th and 18th century are explored in a seminar format. Each seminar provides a forum for the in-depth study of the methods of art historical research. Discussion of weekly readings, classroom presentations and research papers will be required. This counts toward the advanced course requirement for the major. This course can be repeated up to two times for credit, so long as they cover different topics. Any art history course is recommended.

This seminar probes specific problems in modern European and contemporary art. Focusing upon a theme, artist or movement, the course will provide a forum for the in-depth study of the methods of art historical research. Discussion of weekly readings, classroom presentations and research papers will be required. This counts toward the advanced course requirement for the major. This course can be repeated up to two times for credit, so long as they cover different topics. Prerequisite: ARHS 111.

This course explores specific problems in American art and architecture. Topics include Modernism and the Great Depression, World War II and Abstract Expressionism and the relationship between art and politics broadly speaking. When possible, students will utilize regional museum collections. Assignments will include seminar reports, class discussion and a research paper. This course is the same as AMST 378D. This counts toward the advanced course requirement for the major and must be taken as ARHS 378D to count towards the fine arts requirement. This course can be repeated up to two times for credit, so long as they cover different topics. Prerequisite: ARHS 111, 227D, AMST 109 or equivalent.

Required of all senior majors and recommended for senior minors, this course will serve as a capstone to the study of art history. Students will study the foundations of the discipline, explore the variety of methodological approaches employed by art historians, and assess current theoretical issues in the field. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered every fall semester.

Normally, students may enroll in an individual study only if they have taken all the courses offered by the department in that particular area of the curriculum. Exceptions to this rule are at the discretion of the instructor with the support of the department. Individual study is considered an advanced course and, as such, the work produced should be the equivalent of a seminar or high-level intermediate class. A grade point average of 3.0 minimum in art history courses is required. Exceptions to this rule are at the discretion of the instructor with the consent of the department. The professor and the student should establish and agree on the extent and nature of the work required for the individual study. This may take several forms: several short papers, one long paper, one in-depth project (small exhibition or assisting in doing research for an exhibition), a large (and lengthy) generalized outline and annotated bibliography, public presentations and so on. The student and the professor should meet on a regular basis. The frequency is to be determined by the professor in consultation with the student. Students must seek the permission of the instructor before enrolling. Individual study is undertaken at the discretion of the instructor and must be approved by the department. Individual study can be used toward credit for the major and the minor in Art History. Because students must enroll for individual studies by the end of the seventh class day of each semester, they should begin discussion of the proposed individual study preferably the semester before, so that there is time to devise the proposal and seek departmental approval before the registrar’s deadline.

Honors is for students with demonstrated ability to work on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Minimum 3.33 cumulative GPA and a minimum 3.5 major GPA. Students undertaking an honors thesis must have had at least one (and preferably two) intermediate or advanced courses at Kenyon in the topic area. Endorsement of the project by the proposed thesis advisor is mandatory before submitting an application for honors. Previous completion of a research paper in art history (preferably in the area of honors specialization) is essential. Meeting the minimum GPA does not automatically qualify a student for Honors. Typically, if a student has written an exceptionally well-researched and well-written art history paper, and meets the other criteria for acceptance into Honors, a professor might suggest that the student undertake a related topic as an honors thesis. Alternately, students can discuss pursuing an honors thesis with their academic advisor and a potential thesis advisor. The project must be supervised by an art history professor who agrees and is available to serve as the honors thesis advisor and whose interests and expertise coincide with the proposed project. In either case, the student then works closely with the thesis advisor to develop a project proposal to be submitted to the art history faculty. Departmental approval must be obtained during the spring semester preceding work on the thesis. Permission of instructor and department chair are required.

Honors is for students with demonstrated ability to work on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Minimum 3.33 cumulative GPA and a minimum 3.5 major GPA. Students undertaking an honors thesis must have had at least one (and preferably two) intermediate or advanced courses at Kenyon in the topic area. Endorsement of the project by the proposed thesis advisor is mandatory before submitting an application for honors. Previous completion of a research paper in art history (preferably in the area of honors specialization) is essential. Meeting the minimum GPA does not automatically qualify a student for Honors. Typically, if a student has written an exceptionally well-researched and well-written art history paper, and meets the other criteria for acceptance into Honors, a professor might suggest that the student undertake a related topic as an honors thesis. Alternately, students can discuss pursuing an honors thesis with their academic advisor and a potential thesis advisor. The project must be supervised by an art history professor who agrees and is available to serve as the honors thesis advisor and whose interests and expertise coincide with the proposed project. In either case, the student then works closely with the thesis advisor to develop a project proposal to be submitted to the art history faculty. Departmental approval must be obtained during the spring semester preceding work on the thesis. Permission of instructor and department chair are required.