Each section of these first-year seminars approaches the study of literature through the exploration of a single theme in texts drawn from a variety of literary genres (such as tragedy, comedy, lyric poetry, epic, novel, short story, film and autobiography) and historical periods. Classes are small, offering intensive discussion and close attention to each student's writing. Students in each section are asked to work intensively on composition as part of a rigorous introduction to reading, thinking, speaking and writing about literary texts. During the semester, instructors will assign frequent essays and may also require oral presentations, quizzes, examinations and research projects. This course is not open to juniors and seniors without permission of the department chair. Offered every year.

Each section of these first-year seminars approaches the study of literature through the exploration of a single theme in texts drawn from a variety of literary genres (such as tragedy, comedy, lyric poetry, epic, novel, short story, film and autobiography) and historical periods. Classes are small, offering intensive discussion and close attention to each student's writing. Students in each section are asked to work intensively on composition as part of a rigorous introduction to reading, thinking, speaking and writing about literary texts. During the semester, instructors will assign frequent essays and may also require oral presentations, quizzes, examinations and research projects. This course is not open to juniors and seniors without permission of department chair. Offered every year.

This course is a seminar in the general field of Old and Middle English literature. Class meetings will be conducted in a combination seminar and workshop fashion. The primary work of the course will be reading and translating Anglo-Saxon prose and poetry, supplemented by readings in Anglo-Saxon culture and history. First-year and sophomore students with an interest in medieval literature are particularly welcome, but this course is open to all without regard for major or class year. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major.

This course introduces students to the elements of fiction writing. While each section of the course will vary in approach and structure, activities and assignments may include intensive reading, workshops, writing, short and flash fiction, and exercises emphasizing various aspects of fiction such as place, dialogue and character. Students should check the online schedule for specific descriptions of each section. Admission to this course is open, though students may not take this course in the first semester of their first year. Seats are reserved for students in each class year. Offered every year.

This course begins with two premises: (1) that students of the craft of poetry should be challenged to write in as many different ways as possible and (2) that students are individual writers with different needs and goals. In this course, we will study a variety of types of poetry. Regular writing exercises will encourage students to widen their scope and develop their craft. The course will emphasize discovering the "true" subject of each poem, acquiring the skills needed to render that subject, understanding the relationship between form and content, and, finally, interrogating the role and function of poetry in a culture. In addition to weekly reading and writing assignments, students will submit a process-based portfolio demonstrating an understanding of the revision process and a final chapbook of eight to 12 pages of poetry. Admission to this course is open, though students may not take this course in the first semester of their first year. Seats are reserved for students in each class year. Offered every year.

Students in this workshop will write imaginative nonfiction in any of its traditional forms: memoirs, reflections, polemics, chronicles, idylls, lampoons, monographs, pamphlets, profiles, reviews, prefaces, sketches, remarks, complaints -- anything but the traditional college essay. As in other writing workshops, attention in class will be paid above all to the writing itself, word by word, sentence by sentence. Admission to this course is open, though students may not take this course in the first semester of their first year. Seats are reserved for students in each class year. Offered most years.

This course is an introductory workshop in which students will develop skills in a range of narrative strategies, reading a variety of texts: fiction, nonfiction, memoir, and graphic novels and memoirs, as well as blog essays and other relatively new formats and styles of literary expression. As these multiple forms are explored in the course of the semester, students will write new material each week, with an emphasis on understanding structure, pace, setting, time, dialogue, character and narrative voice. Students will be encouraged to experiment with fiction and nonfiction approaches to the same material. The workshop will pay rigorous attention to language and form, sentence by sentence, and will also focus on developing insights and strategies for revision.Students in this class are assumed to possess basic English writing competence and mature ability to give and receive thoughtful criticism.Admission to this course is open, though students may not take this course in the first semester of their first year. Seats are reserved for students in each class year.

This open-enrollment, multi-genre writing course will give students the opportunity to develop as creative writers and readers through a series of writing assignments and workshops. In addition to poetry and short fiction, areas of focus may include creative essay, playwriting, screenwriting and multimedia works. Students will conclude the course by revising and polishing a selection of their original work as a final portfolio. This class will be limited to 15 students, with seats reserved for each class year. Students may not take this course in the first semester of their first year.

"We think back through our mothers if we are women," Virginia Woolf writes in "A Room of One's Own." Taking Woolf's meditation on women and creativity as our point of departure, we will examine a range of fictional, poetic and polemical writing produced by British women from the late 18th century through the early 20th century, a period that witnessed increases in the literary and cultural opportunities available to female writers, as well as challenges to those opportunities. We will explore debates over "proper" education for women; the role of culturally sanctioned "plots" (most notably, romance and marriage plots) in shaping women's lives and narratives; complex negotiations between public and private experience, particularly between work and domesticity; and the aims and achievements of women's activist and political writings. When has it been possible, or desirable, for female writers to "think back through [their] mothers"? If a tradition of women's writing exists, what motivates and characterizes it? How did these women writers create new plots -- or terminate familiar ones -- in response to incommensurable or uncontainable desires and allegiances? How did these writers respond to traditions they inherited from their predecessors, whether male or female? Course authors will include Woolf, Wollstonecraft, Austen, Gaskell, Eliot and Barrett Browning, among others. Students will write two essays and take a final exam. This counts toward the women's and gender studies concentration and the approaches to literary study or the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

Autobiographical writing allows us to study the complicated cultural and personal dynamics of self-making, as individual authors define (and show themselves to have been defined by) their sociohistorical circumstances. How do writers confront or capitalize on such intersections of the personal and the historical? How and why do autobiographers translate life experiences into writing? How do they grapple with elements of experience that are difficult to represent in language? Is truth necessary to -- or even possible in -- autobiographical writing? How have writers' gendered, sexualized, classed, raced or geographically located identities shaped the possibilities and purposes of autobiographical narrative? And where is the line between autobiography and biography? In this survey of classic and experimental autobiographical texts, as well as of major developments in autobiographical theory, we will consider broad questions of identity, time and memory, and narrative through close attention to specific works' subjects, structures and histories. Authors may include Augustine, Thomas De Quincey, Harriet Jacobs, Gertrude Stein, Virginia Woolf, Vladimir Nabokov, Malcolm X, Maxine Hong Kingston and Art Spiegelman, among others. Students will write two essays and several reading response papers and will lead one class discussion. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

What gives a literary text its meaning? Does a text simply contain meaning, or is that meaning shaped by social contexts, history, even the act of reading itself? Literary theory attempts to answer these questions by examining the ways in which we interpret the texts we read. This course will introduce students to some of the most important movements in literary theory over the last century with a particular focus on structuralism and poststructuralism, Marxism, feminism, deconstruction and postcolonialism. In addition, we will read short stories and two or three novels to develop our skills at reading and writing with theory. Autobiographical writing allows us to study the complicated cultural and personal dynamics of self-making, as individual authors define (and show themselves to have been defined by) their sociohistorical circumstances. How do writers confront or capitalize on such intersections of the personal and the historical? How and why do autobiographers translate life experiences into writing? How do they grapple with elements of experience that are difficult to represent in language? Is truth necessary to -- or even possible in --- autobiographical writing? How have writers' gendered, sexualized, classed, raced or geographically located identities shaped the possibilities and purposes of autobiographical narrative? And where is the line between autobiography and biography? In this survey of classic and experimental autobiographical texts, as well as of major developments in autobiographical theory, we will consider broad questions of identity, time and memory, and narrative through close attention to specific works' subjects, structures and histories. Authors may include Augustine, Thomas De Quincey, Harriet Jacobs, Gertrude Stein, Virginia Woolf, Vladimir Nabokov, Malcolm X, Maxine Hong Kingston and Art Spiegelman, among others. Students will write two essays and several reading response papers and will lead one class discussion. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

From basic techniques of critical analysis to far-reaching questions about language, literature, culture and aesthetics, this course will introduce students to many of the fundamental issues, methods and skills of the English major. Topics will range from the pragmatic (e.g., how do you scan a poem? what is free indirect discourse? how do you use the MLA bibliography, OED, JSTOR?) to the theoretical (how does a genre evolve in response to different historical conditions? what is the nature of canons and canonicity? why are questions of race, class, gender and sexuality so important to literary and cultural analysis?). Students will be given many hands-on opportunities to practice new skills and analytic techniques and to explore a range of critical and theoretical paradigms, approaches which should serve them well throughout their careers as English majors. Our discussions will focus on representative texts taken from three genres: drama (Shakespeare's "The Tempest"), the novel (Shelley's "Frankenstein", Woolf's "Mrs. Dalloway"), and lyric poetry (a variety of poems representing four centuries and several traditions). This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement. Open only to first-year and sophomore students and is strongly recommended for anyone contemplating an English major. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

In the planetary analogy through which pop psychologists have articulated gender difference, men are from Mars and women from Venus. Presumably, this suggests an irreducible difference that always separates males and females. Critical gender, feminist and queer theorizations have, however, enabled us to look beyond such simplistic binaries. How can fiction reenvision categories of sexual difference? What newer figurations of gender, sexuality and the seeming immutability of such signifiers do writers play with and complicate? In this course, we will examine some of these gendered imaginings and pay particular attention to the fluidity of gender boundaries, in-betweenness, third space and exclusion by exploring global fiction. In so doing, we will look beyond the heterosexual and heteronormative to identify multiple axes of desire, identity and identification. This counts toward the post-1900 or approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every two years.

This course introduces students to the fundamentals of prosody and poetics. "Ecstasy affords the occasion" for poetry, Marianne Moore wrote, "and expediency determines the form." We will read poems from a broad range of historical periods in a range of forms (sapphics, syllabics, sonnets, sestinas, etc.), as well as statements by poets, critics and theorists about the aims and effects of poetic form. In addition to a series of short critical analyses of poetry, students will practice writing in the forms studied. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

This course will introduce students to a range of critical methods, interpretive strategies and approaches to literature as we explore connections among theories of comedy and comic texts. Jokes, puns and the language of comedy; the carnivalesque; the role of laughter; the relation of comedy to aggression and violence; the depiction of gender; the comedy of manners; utopian social impulses; and the cultural work of comedy: These issues will shape our attempt to explore traditional and contemporary definitions of the genre. Authors to be studied include Shakespeare, Austen, Wilde, Shaw, O'Connor, Woody Allen and David Sedaris. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered occasionally.

In this course, students will become more aware of opportunities for creativity and self‐challenge in the multi‐layered and recursive writing process and become more practiced in the art of writing. They will learn to better articulate objectives at each stage of the writing process and to make distinctions between the many choices for techniques and methods available to them for improving their own writing and that of fellow writers. Objectives include: learning a wide range of rhetorical, literary, and theoretical strategies; connecting theory with practical experience and reflective practice in order to learn more about how best to engage with different kinds of student writers and different forms of academic prose across disciplines; questioning assumptions about writing in order to begin establishing a perspective for self‐evaluation and assessment: becoming more confident at employing a wider range of writing skills and more qualified to suggest interventions to other writers at various stages of the writing process; and learning to analyze various types of writing and engage with them in a variety of recursive processes for exploration, composition and revision. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required. No prerequisite. Offered annually.

An introduction to the theory of narrative, through reference to five paradigmatic narrative texts: Daniel Defoe’s "Robinson Crusoe", Jane Austen’s "Pride and Prejudice", Charles Dickens’ "Great Expectations", Frederick Douglass’ "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave", and Henry James’ "The Portrait of a Lady". Main topics include the essentials of narrative form (plot, character, voice, perspective) as well as their different functions (aesthetic, social, cognitive). Discussions will explore a wide range of issues including the power of narrative closure; the narrative representation of the individual mind; how narrative patterns time; the development of realism across the history of the novel; the practice of narrative in psychology and medicine; and the ethics of narrative engagement. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. It is open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

An introduction to the major plays, this course emphasizes questions of language and modes of reading as the entryway into key themes and topics (e.g., gender, identity, kin/g/ship, desire) within the Shakespearean corpus. An initial in-depth study of a single play will enable us to acquire a base knowledge of rhetorical strategies, considerations of performance and thematic development that we will subsequently apply to our readings of other plays. Assignments reinforce reading and writing strategies. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

There is a growing sense among both literary and journalism scholars that the line between what is fact and what is fiction is blurred consistently within U.S. culture. This blurring is especially challenging in journalism, which is ostensibly charged with reporting the factual, verifiable "truth." This seminar will consider non-fictional texts, journalistic writings and films where the divisions between truth, fiction and journalism are explored. The course will be divided into two units, one in which we explore the ways in which U.S. writers (since perhaps the inception of the nation in the 18th century) have played with the line demarcating fact from fiction. Texts to be considered in the first section will include Harriet Jacobs' autobiographical but pseudonymously published “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl,” Maxine Hong Kingston's “Warrior Woman,” and Susanna Kaysen's “Girl Interrupted.” In the second unit, we will examine how this literary tradition has defined and continues to define U.S. journalism, by reading and analyzing journalistic texts such as Truman Capote's “In Cold Blood,” Sebastian Junger's “The Perfect Storm,” and John Berendt's “Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil.” We also will watch the fictionalized films based on Junger's and Berendt's texts, along with films such as “Spotlight,” which more recently dramatized the search for "truth" by a team of journalists in the cases of sexual abuse of children by Catholic priests in Boston. We will also address and evaluate the influence of "citizen journalism," and of new media on journalistic practices. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104 and permission of instructor.

We will read the most important works written in Middle English by women, placing these in the context of continental traditions of women's writing. Our readings will range across time, space and genre: from the letters exchanged by history's most famous ill-fated lovers (Abelard and Heloise), to some of the most sophisticated works of theology produced in the Middle Ages (by Julian of Norwich and Hildegard von Bingen), to the first autobiography in English, in which a married mother of 14 travels around the world on pilgrimage, challenging clerics and stirring up trouble along the way (The Book of Margery Kempe). We also will read writing by women in lesser-known genres: purgatory vision letters, parenting manuals, as well as some of the advice and conduct literature written by men that shaped expectations of female behavior. Most texts will be in modern translation, with a few short pieces in Middle English (no previous experience expected). This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

Chaucer's final great work (profound, moving, sometimes disturbing, often hilarious) can be considered both a medieval anthology and a framed, self-referential narrative anticipating modern forms and modern questions. Reading in Middle English and exploring the social and historical contexts of Chaucer's fictions, we will pay special attention to Chaucer's preoccupations with the questions of experience and authority, the literary representation of women, the power of art and the status of literature itself. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

J. R. R. Tolkien was not just a beloved novelist but also a distinguished scholar who edited, translated and analyzed medieval poetry including "Beowulf", "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", and Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales." In this course, we will study the literature that gave rise to Tolkien's fiction in order to explore how medieval literature continues to shape contemporary popular culture. In this vein, our reading of medieval texts will pay particular attention to "popular" genres such as purgatory vision narratives, romances and drama. While our reading will primarily focus on the medieval narratives that inspired Tolkien, there will be occasional student-led opportunities to connect this medieval material to Tolkien's own fiction and poetry. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

From the invention of Valentine's Day, to the notion of love as a sickness, to the articulation of courtship as a game with specific rules, many of our ideas about and expectations for romantic love come to us from medieval literature. Yet in the popular medieval genre of adventure story known as "romance," things do not always go according to love's rules: Men fall in love with other men, women resist getting married, and married women seduce their unsuspecting houseguests. In this course, we will explore the complex messages about love and sex encoded in medieval romances. Our readings will include poetry by Geoffrey Chaucer, the anonymous romances "Roman de Silence" and "Amis and Amiloun", Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun's "Romance of the Rose", and the rules of love offered by both Ovid and Capellanus, and other medieval texts as well as contemporary works of theory and criticism. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major and the women's and gender studies major/concentration. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

This course examines the profound cultural matrix that shaped the golden age of English literature. The course will focus on nondramatic poetry, especially that of Sidney, Shakespeare and Spenser, with attention to the development of the Renaissance lyric and the Renaissance conception of the vocation of poet. The sonnet will be studied extensively in relation to gender and love relations, and to the cult of the individual. We also will examine the origins of Elizabethan drama and the relation of emblem, allegory and spectacle to Elizabethan drama and epic. How does Elizabethan literature represent, celebrate and critique the power relations found in Renaissance social institutions? Using contemporary critical and cultural theory, we will analyze the roots of Elizabethan nationalism, the emergence of London as a central literary milieu, and the iconic dominance of Queen Elizabeth in the literary and cultural landscape of the late 16th century. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered two of every three years.

This study of the Renaissance poem opens up a delicate world of intensely structured language. We will develop strategies of micro- and macro-reading for understanding how sparks of meaning lattice across a poem to create a whole effect: we will see how a single letter can change everything, how much a single word can do, a single line, a stanza within a poem, an entire sonnet within a series of sonnets. We will explore ways poems draw us into their worlds by transforming us into the "I" of the lyric speaker, by articulating our own emotions in a beautiful and intricate arrangement of words designed to amplify or soothe. In the light of early modern poetic studies as well as contemporary methodologies (e.g., George Puttenham, Roman Jakobson), this course examines the major Renaissance poetic movements and poetics of the 16th and early 17th centuries, including the works of sonneteers, popular ballad writers, the Cavalier Poets, the Metaphysical Poets and others. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the pre-1700 requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

When T. S. Eliot declared that there had been a disassociation of sensibility that set in after the early 17th-century metaphysical poets, he was deliberately claiming a connection between his own work and the writing from this earlier period that he admired. This course will investigate this affinity between early modern literature and the literature of the 20th century. In the process, we will consider the importance of early modern literature in forming the critical taste and formalist methods of reading that were central to the New Criticism. This counts toward the pre-1700 and 20th century requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

We will begin this course by spending several weeks on Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" (examining in passing another work of the 18th century inspired by "Gulliver's Travels", "The Adventures of Baron Munchausen"). Satire is one of the predominant forms of the 18th century and finds its grotesque complement in the graphic arts. We will study various examples of visual satire -- notably the "progress" narratives of William Hogarth. We will examine the emergence of the novel in this period, focusing on its multi-generic character. We will explore the overlapping of categories -- history and fiction, travel and novel, news and novels, philosophy and fiction -- in works such as Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels", Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's epistolary account of her travels to Turkey, Eliza Haywood's spy/masquerade novel "Fantomina", and Susanna Centlivre's play about metamorphosis, "A Bold Stroke for a Wife". Periodical literature first appears in the long 18th century. We will explore the phenomenon of spectatorship in this period in relation to the institution of the masquerade, the science and philosophy of empiricism, and the rise of the penitentiary and systems of surveillance. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

This course presents a survey of 18th-century literature from Jonathan Swift to such writers of the 1790s and early 19th century as Mary Wollstonecraft, Olaudah Equiano and Maria Edgeworth. Early 18th-century literature is dominated by satirical works that ostensibly aim at reform through ridicule, even while the great satirists doubt that such an aim can be achieved. Beginning in mid-century, the literary movement of sentimentalism and sensibility rejects the satirical impulse and embraces sympathy, immediacy and the "man of feeling." Throughout the period -- indeed already satirized by Swift and Pope -- Enlightenment ideals are explored and debated in a new public sphere. These ideals include progress, secularism, universal rights, the systematization of knowledge and the growth of liberty through print and education. Through an examination of works in a variety of literary genres (prose and verse satire, periodical essay, novel, tragedy, comedy, descriptive and lyric poetry, and travel writing), the course will introduce students to such authors as Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, Edmund Burke and Thomas Gray. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered occasionally.

This course will focus on the lyric poetry of the Romantic period, from William Cowper to John Keats. We shall also consider criticism, autobiographical writing, essays and novels by William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Hazlitt, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and Keats. In this course, we shall investigate two central claims: first, that Romantic poetry is not simply nature poetry but rather philosophical poetry about the interrelationship between natural objects and the human subject; and, secondly, that Romanticism develops a notion of aesthetic autonomy out of very specific political and historical engagements. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

"What art's for a woman?" asks Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Her question was echoed by many other writers throughout the 19th century, nonetheless -- or all the more -- a great age for literary women. This course will introduce major writers of the Romantic and Victorian periods, exploring the relationships between their lives and works, and examining issues such as women as readers; the education of women; the changing roles of women in the home, in the workplace and in the community; the growth of the reading public; and the gendering of authorship. We will consider relations between genres as we read fiction ("Gothic" and "realistic" novels), poetry, letters, journals, biography, autobiography and essays on education, travel, literature and politics. Authors will include Mary Wollstonecraft, Maria Edgeworth, Dorothy Wordsworth, Jane Austen, Mary Shelley, Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Florence Nightingale, George Eliot and Christina Rossetti. This counts toward the 1700-1900 or approaches to literary study requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered two of every three years.

"Modernism" refers to art that aimed to break with the past and create innovative new forms of expression. The modernists, writing between 1890 and 1939, tried in various ways to make literature newly responsive to the movements of a rapidly changing modern world. Alienated by the upheavals of modernity, or inspired by modern discoveries and developments in psychology, technology and world culture, modernist literature reflects new horrors and traces new modes of insight. Experimental, often difficult and shocking, modernist literature pushes language to its limits and tests the boundaries of art and perception. This course studies the nature and development of modernist literature, reading key texts in the context of the theoretical doctrines and cultural movements that helped to produce them. The key texts include poetry and fiction by T. S. Eliot, Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, Nella Larsen, Marianne Moore, Langston Hughes, William Faulkner and Ezra Pound. The secondary material includes essays, paintings and manifestoes produced at the moment of modernism, as well as later criticism that will help explain what modernism was all about. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

This course will survey two centuries of "Irish Classics" by reading, in translation, poems and narratives from the vibrant Gaelic literary tradition and by returning to their Irish milieu a number of classic texts that have been conscripted into the canon of "English Literature." We will encounter "the greatest poem written in these islands in the whole 18th century," according to one critic -- a traditional keen composed by an Irishwoman over the body of her murdered husband -- and we will read Maria Edgeworth's "Castle Rackrent", "the first significant English novel to speak in the words of the colonized," according to another critic. We will ask what happens to Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" or Oscar Wilde's glittering "The Importance of Being Earnest" or Bram Stoker's brooding "Dracula" when we restore it to a Hibernian context. We will read a bawdy Irish epic once banned in Ireland, analyze early lyrics by W.B. Yeats, consider Joyce's "Dubliners", and conclude with some rousing examples of the Irish political ballad. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every other year.

In this class, we will explore how cities are written -- not only how they are written about, but also how they are constructed, both imaginatively and concretely, through disciplines ranging from poetry to architecture. In doing so, we will try to understand how cities give rise to modern literature and to modernity more generally. In the works of novelists that may include Dickens, Bellow, Balzac, Ellison, Joyce, Zadie Smith, Rushdie and Woolf, we will consider urban landscapes that offer unprecedented economic, political, social and intellectual opportunities. At the same time, we will see how urban life threatens to increase the commodification of experience and how new organizations of social space impose ever greater levels of control and surveillance, calling for new tactics in both literature and daily life. By reading poets such as Apollinaire, Ashbery, Baudelaire, Brooks, Cullen, Eliot, Hughes, McKay, O'Hara, Williams and Whitman, we will explore the role of the crowd, its race and its class. Theoretical works by authors such as Jean Baudrillard, Houston Baker, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, Ann Douglas, Jane Jacobs, Frederick Jameson, Le Corbusier and Lewis Mumford will frame discussions of literary texts. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

An expression commonly used in relation to travel, the phrase “in transit” is defined as the passage or journey from one place, or point, to another. In this course, we will read and analyze a diversity of literary texts that deal with the theme of being “in transit.” Through the exploration of short stories, novels and film, we will grapple with the following questions: What does being in transit mean for the individual as well as for the community? How do writers imagine the transitions, (trans)formations, and intersections of gender, race, class and sexuality that take place during such crossings? What are the geopolitical implications of travel? Are ‘breaks’ in the journey imagined as disruptions or continuities with the places/spaces of departure/arrival? How do writers imagine ‘becoming stuck’ in a place previously imagined to be transitory and fluid, moving towards a clear destination? What are the gamut of affective or emotional experiences that accompany the process of being in transit? We will read the following texts: Charles Dickens’, "Great Expectations," Earl Lovelace’s, "The Dragon Can’t Dance," Tayari Jones’, "An American Marriage," Laila Lalami’s, "Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits," Edwidge Danticat’s, "Claire of the Sea Light," Rokhey Sakhawat Hossain’s, “Sultana’s Dream." This course is taught at the Richland Correctional Institution. Transportation will be provided. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required. No prerequisite.

From "Heart of Darkness" to "Midnight's Children" to "Wide Sargasso Sea" to "Pushing the Bear", the novel has lent itself to various and provocative imaginings of national identities. Novelists have not only imagined their own nations but they also have imagined "other" nations as well. This class examines how national identities are represented in these novels and to what purpose. We also identify and explore the outer reaches and limitations of postcolonial theory as we apply its critical frameworks to the analysis of 19th- and 20th-century novels that have come to define and/or challenge national identities in Africa, India, the Caribbean and the United States. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

In his "Critique of Violence," the German philosopher Walter Benjamin raises the question: "Is any nonviolent resolution of conflict possible?" In this course, we will investigate this question through an exploration of literary and theoretical writings that shed light on the historical experience of decolonization. Decolonization was often imagined as a "new day," free from oppression and strife. In reality, however, independence from the colonizer was almost always marked by many manifestations of violence. Why was decolonization such a violent phenomenon? How did violence express itself in response to race, class, gender, and religious and linguistic difference? How did the various anticolonial nationalisms imagine everyday life after independence? How was literature -- novels, poems, short stories, plays and film -- shaped by the struggles of anticolonial resistance and decolonization? And finally, how do fictional texts represent everyday life after decolonization? These are some of the questions that we will explore in this course. We will begin with an exploration of a few critical writings on violence: Frantz Fanon's "Concerning Violence," Walter Benjamin's "Critique of Violence," Mohandas K. Gandhi's "Hindu Swaraj", Hannah Arendt's "Reflections on Violence" and excerpts from Edward Said's "Culture and Imperialism". We will use the questions and responses that we generate from our discussion of these theoretical texts to frame our subsequent analyses of literary texts. Our literary texts will include writing from India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Trinidad, Jamaica and Zimbabwe. Rabindranath Tagore's "The Home and the World", Earl Lovelace's "The Dragon Can't Dance", Shyam Selvadurai's "Funny Boy", Michael Ondaatje's "Anil's Ghost", Tsitsi Dangarembga's "Nervous Conditions" and Baburao Bagul's "Mother" are some of the works that we will read in the context of the course. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

This course serves as an introduction to the literature and film produced by and about U.S. Latinos and Latinas, and to the theoretical approaches, such as borderlands theory, which have arisen from the lived experience of this diverse group. By focusing on the Latino/a experience, and situating it squarely within an American literary tradition, the course examines the intersections of national origin or ancestry with other identity markers such as gender, race and sexuality. We take an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to connect literature and film with history, political science, psychology, art, sociology and so on. Thus, students read not only literary works, both visual and written, but also related works in other disciplines that speak to the issues raised by the texts. Specifically, the course critically explores the effects and literary expressions of internal and external migration, displacement and belonging, nation and citizenship, code switching and other ways in which Latinos and Latinas have made sense of their experiences in the United States. Beginning with 16th-century accounts by Spaniards in areas that would eventually become part of the United States, and moving to the present day, the class familiarizes students with the culture(s) of a group that plays an important role in our national narrative, and with the issues that this group grapples with on our national stage. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement. Open only to first-year and sophomore students who have taken ENGL 103 or 104.

The late 19th century was a pivotal moment in African-American social and intellectual history. During Reconstruction, African Americans were elected to positions in state and national government. Later in the century, however, unprecedented racial violence threatened the social, political and economic gains achieved during Reconstruction. As the nation as a whole was still attempting to heal the wounds of sectional division caused by the Civil War, African Americans were also meditating on what it means to be a people. African American literature written during this time incorporates such meditations, chronicling African Americans' attempt to negotiate between the two poles of hope and hate, and urging individual readers to commit to the common cause of racial uplift. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every one or two years.

Modernist literature was written under the injunction to "make it new." Our discussion will focus on how American modernist writers made it new, and what "it" was, in each case, that they made. We will pay particular attention to the problematics of gender and sexuality and to the permeability of gender boundaries that produced such figures as Djuna Barnes's Dr. O'Connor, T.S. Eliot's Tiresias and Ernest Hemingway's Jake Barnes. In addition to these three writers, we will read selections from Stein, Faulkner, Hughes, Williams and Larsen, among others. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major and can count toward the American studies major/concentration, as well as (in some years) the Women's and Gender Studies concentration. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

An introduction to the field of Native American studies, this interdisciplinary course critically examines an array of cultural expression by contemporary Native writers, filmmakers, visual artists and performers. While the course emphasizes the way Native people represent themselves, we begin with the powerful stereotypes of Native Americans that continue to circulate (hence, the unlearning aspect of the course), then look to the ways Native artists and writers appropriate, refute, and rewrite these images. As we read, screen and listen, we all attend to the political, regional and tribal contexts informing these works, through supplementary reading in history, political science, gender studies and other disciplines. Key critical issues will include nation and sovereignty, indigenous feminism and two-spirit traditions, displacement and community, and the role of humor. Texts to be studied may include "Storyteller" by Leslie Marmon Silko, "Bad Indians" by Deborah Miranda, "When My Brother Was an Aztec" by Natalie Diaz, such films as "Reel Injun," "Smoke Signals," and "The Fast Runner", and work by such visual and performing artists as the 1491s, Steven Paul Judd, and Jaune Quick-to-See-Smith. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

This course engages questions such as: "How have U.S. writers and filmmakers represented fear, and why?" "What are the major themes in American horror?" "What is the relationship of American horror to American history and to ongoing national issues, especially those involving race, class, sexuality and gender?" To answer these questions, we do close reading analysis, read critical and theoretical essays, and apply historicist and cultural-studies approaches to examine specifically "American" novels, short stories and films that seek to incite fear in one way or another. We look at canonical works, such as those of Edgar Allan Poe and Henry James, and also at works considered "mass market," such as those of Stephen King and the film "Jaws". Our mission is to uncover how these texts are cast as specifically "American" and why this is significant to our understanding of the texts and their historical contexts. We also compare how the written and visual "fears" between the texts, and between written texts and films, work differently and similarly. This counts toward the 1700-1900 or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

Race, class, gender, religion: These categories can be the basis of identity politics that divide as much as they unite. This course will consider the significance in American literary texts of friendships that transgress these categorical divisions. We will contemplate what makes such transgression possible in individual instances, and why these instances are so exceptional. We will expand the discussion to explore the tension between the individual and the community in the formation of identity. Texts are likely to include: Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn", Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun Also Rises", Toni Morrison's "Sula", Langston Hughes' and Zora Neale Hurston's play "Mule Bone", Toni Morrison's short story "Recitatif" and others. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

While not a comprehensive survey, this course introduces students to a wide range of literature written by African Americans between the mid-nineteenth century and the present. In regard to the chosen authors, the aim is a balance of coverage and depth that will establish a foundation for further study. To that end, the assigned primary readings are shorter, rather than longer, and will be complemented by a selection of essential critical texts. To organize our reading, we will examine literary works in respect to their historical and cultural contexts, and we will also consider the politics of African American literature in the United States: the complex relationships between race, reception, and canon building in the academy, as well as the ways that black writing has informed—and has been informed by—the struggles for freedom, civil rights and social justice. This counts toward the 1700-1900 or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

This course involves close examination of 10 American novels written after World War II. Consideration will be given to styles and methods: the authorial choices that make the novels what they are. Beyond this, however, we'll examine these novels as comments on American life. The reading list may be organized around a specific theme -- politics, ethnic experience, sport, small-town life -- or a combination of themes. In any case, the study of authors whose place in or out of the canon has not yet been determined should give the class an opportunity for intelligent, critical reading. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Open only to first-year and sophomore students. Prerequisite: ENGL 103 or 104.

This workshop will focus on discussion of participants' fiction as well as on exercises and playful experimentation. Principally, we will be concerned with how stories work at every level. As we consider narrative strategies and practical methods for developing individual styles, along with approaches to revising work, we also will read, as writers, a variety of outside texts. Check with the English department administrative assistant for submission deadlines. Prerequisite: ENGL 200, 202 or 204 or submission of a writing sample and permission of instructor. Offered every year.

This course sets out to trouble your assumptions -- both conscious and unrecognized -- about poetry: writing it, reading it, responding to it; its purpose, its nature, its public and private selves. We will explore revision in the fullest senses of the word, aiming not only toward compression and economy but toward expansion and explosion, toward breaking down the boundaries between what constitutes -- for you as writer and reader -- poem and not-poem. We will reverse the usual order of things: Our workshopping will focus on canonized poems, and you should expect to engage fully in your role as poet-critic when you respond to classmates' work, approaching it as you approach texts in the literature classroom. We will explore poetry's technologized face through blogs and webzines, even as, Luddite-like, we hand write, cut, paste, find and memorize poetry. This class requires intensive reading (and attendant thoughtful response) in poetry and poetics, enthusiastic engagement with exercises in critique, revision and poem-making, and a final project, demonstrating your advancement as both critic and poet during the course of the semester. Texts will likely include several volumes of contemporary poetry, selected critical essays, manifestoes, writings on process and readings by visiting writers. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, submission of a writing sample and permission of instructor. Offered every year.

Students in this workshop will write imaginative nonfiction in any of its many forms and will write and revise one or more pieces to produce 75-90 pages over the course of the semester. As with all writing workshops, classroom discussion will require an openness to giving and receiving criticism. Outside reading will include essays and at least one book-length work by acknowledged masters of the form. To better explore questions of craft, written responses to these readings will be due each week. Prerequisite: ENGL 200, 202, 204, or a similar course, submission of writing sample and permission of instructor.

Long ago, in answer to the question, "What is time?" St. Augustine wrote: "If no one asks me I know but when someone does I do not." Time continues to be hard to define or explain. But where philosophy and physics fail, some say, narrative succeeds. Narrative engagement, as the creative record of history, or the form of personal recollection, or the way to trace the succession of moments in an ordinary day, may be the cultural form through which we truly understand the meaning of time. To test this theory, this course will read narrative fiction that experiments with the representation of time to see: (1) what such fiction has to say about time and (2) how the problem of time determines the forms, styles, and techniques of narrative fiction. Primary texts will include novels and stories by Charles Dickens, Leo Tolstoy, Virginia Woolf, William Faulkner, Jorge Luis Borges and others. Secondary reading will include philosophical treatments of time, literary-critical accounts of the time-narrative relationship and cultural histories of time's changing meanings.This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

Through discussion and occasional lecture, this course will examine some of the aesthetic strategies and cultural concerns of postmodern narrative: the critique of representation and a consequent focus on fictionality, textuality, intertextuality and the act of reading; subversion of "master narratives" and the release of multiplicity and indeterminacy; preoccupation with the discursive construction of the human subject and the interrelationship of language, knowledge, power; and the interpenetration of history and fiction, theory and literature, "high" art and mass culture. We will consider such writers as Italo Calvino, Angela Carter, J.M. Coetzee, Maxine Hong Kingston, Vladimir Nabokov, Manuel Puig, Ishmael Reed, Salman Rushdie and Jeanette Winterson. We also will engage various theorists and critics of the postmodern (Barthes, Lyotard, Jameson, Eagleton). This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally.

History of the Book is an introduction to the history of material texts. It investigates the production of writing from scribal manuscript to modern digital media, with a focus on the hand-press era (c.1450-1830). Our goal is to become proficient at reading material forms in conjunction with the texts they contain and to place these materials in historical context. During the course, we will examine topics including: shifting notions of authorship and audience; the processes of manuscript and print production; the economics of printing and bookselling; libraries and organization of knowledge; methods of illustration; mise-en-page, and paratexts; and textual editing. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement, the pre-1700 or 1700-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing, or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

From Homer's description of the shield of Achilles in the "Iliad", to Keats' great "Ode on a Grecian Urn," to John Ashbery's meditation on Parmigianino's painting in "Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror," poets have attempted to capture works of visual art in words. This course will consider examples in this tradition, from classical to contemporary poets, as well as a range of theories of ekphrasis. We will explore the various ways that such poems offer (as the root meaning of ekphrasis indicates) a "speaking out" or a "telling in full" of what is silent in a painting, sketch, sculpture, monument, photograph or fresco; from ancient Greek bronzes to the miraculous boxes of Joseph Cornell. The fascination with ekphrasis also should suggest, however, ways that the visual arts, at their best, evoke more than the merely visible, just as great poetry evokes that which is beyond words. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

As a genre, fantasy has seen a sudden leap in popularity over the last two decades, primarily as a result of novels for children, such as those by J. K. Rowling and Philip Pullman, and of film or television adaptations, such as those of "Lord of the Rings" and "Game of Thrones". Despite these events it remains one of the most marginalized genre categories in fiction, both in academia and in culture more generally -- a marginalization that is all the more striking considering the general acceptance of magic realist novels as part of literary culture. In this course we will reread the genre of fantasy for continuities with the wider history of the novel, focusing particularly on allegory, the bildungsroman, children's literature and historical narratives. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

A duo of Washington journalists uncovers a political scandal that brings down a U.S. president, a reporter devotes more than a decade to solving one of the worst serial killer cases in U.S. history, toxic waste dumping leads to the death of several residents in a small New England town, and a writer spends eight years of his life shadowing the lawyer who fought and lost one of the earliest environmental law cases in U.S. courts. In all those events, and many others, journalistic research, analysis and writing were the keys to uncovering unknown or concealed facts that changed the course of U.S. history. This class explores the long-standing relationship between literature and journalism through the genre of literary journalism in a series of mostly 20th-and 21st- century texts (such as Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood" and Jonathan Harr's "A Civil Action"), and films that represent the process and consequences of journalistic writing ("All the President's Men" and "Zodiac," among others). Secondary texts include books about writing and about literary journalism, such as Norman Sims' "True Stories: A Century of Literary Journalism". Students will learn to contextualize these works within their historical periods and to analyze them as cultural and literary texts. In addition, students also produce a piece of literary journalism as their final project. The goal of the class is to familiarize students with the historical and literary significance of this genre and to explore how this "fourth genre" has contributed to the construction of personal and national narratives of identity through the use of literary tools. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor. Offered every other year.

Who and what is "Shakespeare"? The wealth of Shakespeare's legacy allows us to offer many versions of this course, all of which will focus on Shakespeare on the page and on the stage. Sometimes this course may examine the role of the cultural "other." Looking at figures like the witch, the native/foreigner, or the cross-dressed woman in such plays as "Macbeth", "Othello"and "The Merchant of Venice", we will explore the way Shakespeare's theater shaped -- and was shaped by -- the cultural expectations of the English Renaissance. At other times the course may query the concept of Renaissance self-fashioning in the sonnets and in plays such as "Twelfth Night", "Hamlet", and "Antony and Cleopatra." We may also explore what Shakespeare read as he composed plays such as "A Midsummer Night's Dream," "King Lear," and "The Tempest" -- and how writers since Shakespeare have responded to and re-envisioned his work in the form of lyric poems, new plays, novels and films. Now and then, the course may focus on "the history plays," or the relationship of comedy and tragedy to the romances. No matter which version of Shakespeare is offered, a close reading of several of Shakespeare's plays will always shape and center this course. This counts towards the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor. Offered annually.

This course treats the history of English from Anglo-Saxon through the Renaissance in English literature to the era of Samuel Johnson and the creation of his great dictionary. The first half of the course provides an introduction to both Anglo-Saxon and Middle English language and literature. Students acquire sufficient grasp to read the citations in the "Oxford English Dictionary" from the medieval period. In the Anglo-Saxon portion of the course, the study focuses on short texts including poetry, riddles and varieties of prose. In the Middle English and Early Modern English portions of the course, the array of texts is broader and includes the Renaissance sonnet tradition, family correspondence and miscellaneous prose. Particular attention is given to the emergence of differentiated styles, dialects and "discourses" in the 17th and 18th centuries, and to the early stages of English language study following models of philology created to treat Latin and Greek. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or pre-1700 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

With a focus on major works -- "Troilus and Criseyde", "The House of Fame", "The Legend of Good Women" and "The Canterbury Tales" -- we will consider Chaucer in the context of medieval literature and as a writer who anticipates modern questions of gender and authority. Reading in Middle English and exploring the social and historical contexts of Chaucer's fictions, we will pay special attention to Chaucer's preoccupations with the experience of reading, the revisioning of romance, the metamorphosis and translation of texts, and the status of the book itself. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

The Reformation deeply influenced the literary development of England and transformed the religious, intellectual and cultural worlds of the 16th and 17th centuries. The long process of Reformation, shaped by late-medieval piety, the Renaissance, Continental activists, and popular religion, illustrates both religious continuities and discontinuities in the works of poets and prelates, prayer books and propaganda, sermons and exorcisms, bibles and broadsheets. This interdisciplinary course will focus on a range of English literary texts, from the humanists under early Tudor monarchs to the flowering of Renaissance writers in the Elizabethan and Stuart eras, in the context of religious history, poetry, drama, prose and iconography. Writers and reformers such as More, Erasmus, Cranmer, Shakespeare, Marlowe, Southwell, Herbert and Donne will be examined. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. This course is the same as RLST 331. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course will examine the poetry of England's most radical age, a period of revolution, religious dissent and the birth of modern science, of apocalyptic visions and utopian dreams. We will consider how these changing ideas about politics, religion, science and sex shaped the poems of John Donne, Aemilia Lanyer, Ben Jonson, George Herbert, Katherine Philips, John Milton, Henry Vaughan, Andrew Marvell and others. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course will undertake a close reading and analysis of the great English epic "Paradise Lost" in the context of Milton's political and literary career: his early experiments in lyric poetry and masque; his radical support -- through prose, the writings of "[his]left hand" -- of revolution, freedom of the press and divorce; and his personal response to imprisonment and the death of his political hopes in the restoration of the English monarchy under Charles II. As we examine issues of freedom, authority and authorship in "Paradise Lost" and "Samson Agonistes", we will consider Milton's revisioning of classical epic and drama and of biblical texts. And as we explore the attempt "to justify the ways of God to men," we will pay particular attention to Milton's account of gender and his examination of the literary imagination and the creative process. We also will consider the responses of other great writers, from Milton's time to our own, to this most provocative and enduring epic. This counts towards the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course focuses on the plays of a period (roughly 1660-1720) deemed to be one of the most licentious in history, both morally and politically. We shall examine the ways in which contemporary playwrights and film directors explore and critique not only Restoration society but also modern society through the lens of Restoration plays. Peter Greenaway's "Draughtsman's Contract" (1982), set in 1694, is a brilliant reconstruction of the Restoration's preoccupation with sex and property but it also is a film that reflects on the art of filmmaking, thus taking us into the modern world through the perspective of the 17th-century artist and forcing us to confront the ways in which we see the past. The Restoration period was an important moment of transition in theater history: women (as actors) were introduced to the stage (displacing boys playing women's roles), and female playwrights had a new and influential voice. We will examine the rise of the actress in the Restoration and also in modern plays that attempt to recreate the sexual dynamics of this cultural shift. This counts toward the pre-1700 or the 1700-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

In this course, we will concentrate on the literature and discourse of travel in the later 18th century. This is the period of the "grand tour," the rise of tourism and the tourist industry, and the increasing preoccupation of writers with the issue of cultural identity -- are human beings everywhere ("from China to Peru") the same, or are there important essential or cultural differences between them? Is there such a thing as national identity and, if so, what attempts can be made to preserve or construct that national identity? What are the relationships of so-called civilized cultures to "primitive" or undeveloped ones? Many travelers in the 18th century embarked on the grand tour to Italy, to examine the origins of a culture the English sought to reconstruct in self-consciously "neoclassical" forms, but travelers also ventured north --to Scandinavia, to the polar regions, to the Celtic fringes of Britain -- hoping to find and observe people existing in a state of nature. We will examine how various writers use travel as a "vehicle" to explore such larger issues as the history of human society and notions of progress. We also will study issues of perception -- how travelers regarded and transformed what they viewed. In addition to reading 18th-century tour guides, we will study representations of the sublime and picturesque in landscape painting, landscape gardening, and theater design. We also will examine the horror of travel in the 18th century by examining narratives of the slave trade. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course aims to define the novel, to trace the causes of its rise in 18th-century England, to study some great and various examples of the genre from Aphra Behn to Jane Austen, and to learn about a historical period quite different from our own even though we may find there some of the roots of our own culture. The novel will be defined against epic, romance, drama, historiography and newswriting. Various types of novel also will be distinguished: fictional biography and autobiography, epistolary fiction, the picaresque, the fictional travelogue, the Oriental tale, sentimental fiction and Gothic fiction. Particular attention will be paid to authorial prefaces, dedications and advertisements to determine what the novelists themselves thought about the emerging genre and how they imagined their relationship to the reader. This course also will provide an introduction to such major theorists of the novel as Mikhail Bakhtin, Ian Watt and Michael McKeon. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course will explore some of the complexities and contradictions in the literature of the Romantic period. A period that came to be identified with the work of six male poets in two generations (Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge; Byron, Shelley and Keats) also is the period in which the English novel achieves considerable subtlety and broad cultural influence. In addition to the poets, then, the course will include works by such novelists as Walter Scott and Maria Edgeworth. While lyric poetry becomes increasingly dominant and the sonnet undergoes a revival in this period, there remains a poetic hierarchy in which epic and tragedy occupy the highest positions. The course will therefore include dramatic poems, whether or not such works were intended for performance, and a consideration of the epic impulse. The course will examine the tension between populism (and popular superstitions) and the elitist alienation of the Romantic poet, and the relationship between political radicalism and both Burkean conservatism and an abandonment of the political ideals of the French Revolution in favor of imaginative freedom. In addition, this course will introduce students to recent critical studies of Romanticism. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

In the 19th century British writers brought into the world innumerable fictional characters and plots that have -- for good and ill, and in forms as low as cereal boxes and as high as acclaimed novels -- served as cultural touchstones for more than a century. In this course, we will explore a handful of fictions that have undergone particularly provocative transformations into novelistic, theatrical, and cinematic productions. Throughout the semester, we will use our close readings of fictions, plays and films (as well as of ephemera like cartoons) to consider theories and practices of adaptation in both the 19th and 20th centuries. What kinds of plots seem most to have enthralled or even possessed 19th- and 20th-century readers and viewers? How do those plots change when they undergo shifts from textual to visual media? We also will explore the cultural and critical discourses that have grown up around particular works. Course texts will include Austen's "Pride and Prejudice", Shelley's "Frankenstein", Carroll's "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland", Stevenson's "Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" and Stoker's "Dracula", as well as numerous film adaptations of each novel. Students will produce two formal writings and weekly film response papers and also will participate in a group research presentation. Students enrolled in this course must attend a mandatory weekly film screening. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the 1700-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course will serve as a wide-ranging exploration of Victorian poetic culture. Our primary focus will be Victorian poetry in all its forms -- including lyric, ballad, elegy, narrative and epic -- and its staggering range of subjects sacred and profane: love, grief, social injustice, doubt, sadomasochism, religious devotion, pet dogs, travel, madness and poetry itself (among many others). We will read works by Tennyson, the Brownings, the Brontes, the Rossettis, Arnold, Clough, Hopkins, Swinburne and Hardy, examining the formal and topical conventions and innovations of their verse. We also will examine mechanisms of fame and obscurity as they shaped these (and other) poets' careers, and we will discuss a number of female poets whose critical and canonical fortunes have risen in recent years, including the dramatic monologist Augusta Webster and the duo who wrote as Michael Field. We will consider the relationship of poetry to other arts (especially painting) and literary forms (such as the novel); we also will discuss the role anthologies, periodicals, reviews and the development of English literature as an academic discipline played in the circulation and consumption of poetic works throughout the 19th century. Students will write two formal essays and several three-to-four-page poetry explications and also will perform at least one poem during class. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the 1700-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course will introduce students to the wide range of questions, scandals, lessons, and pleasures to be found in nineteenth-century novels. We will attend to questions of how the 19th-century novel differed from its predecessors and successors how the novel, as a genre, grappled with the nineteenth century's relentless social, political, and technological changes and how novels functioned within and across national boundaries and literary traditions. How were 19th-century novels packaged and marketed? Who read them, and how did they read them? How have they survived into other media (including authorial public readings and theatrical and cinematic adaptations) since their initial publications? How might careful study of another era's fictional literature help us both to understand that era and to reexamine our own historical and cultural moment? This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of the instructor.

In the 19th century, Britain was nothing if not haunted -- by (among other things) history, doubt, science, political unrest, desire and sexuality, other parts and peoples of the world, and the unfathomable complexities of the human psyche. This course will provide an intensive introduction to Victorian literature and culture through an examination of its ghosts. Among the literary works we will read are fictions by Emily Bronte, Hardy, Eliot, Gaskell, Dickens, Pater, James and Wilde; poetry by Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Christina Rossetti, Swinburne and Hardy; and autobiographical writing by Oliphant. We will explore extraliterary movements and phenomena that illustrate how Victorian people attempted to document and/or make contact with ghosts, including spiritualism, spirit photography and psychical research. And we will give some consideration to the ways the Victorian period has haunted its successors. Students can expect to complete two major essays and a final exam, deliver at least one oral presentation, and compose occasional short reading papers or discussion questions. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course will afford us an opportunity to concentrate on and to luxuriate in one novel, George Eliot's "Middlemarch" (1871-72), and to consider how close study of a single literary work can afford a window onto the cultural, political, and intellectual developments of a complex historical period. During our first read, we will move through this eight-part novel at roughly the pace at which you might have encountered it in a course on the Victorian novel or on George Eliot's works more broadly. On our second read, we will move at the much slower pace of one part per week, bringing various contextualizing materials to bear upon our rereading. This course will thus function both as a chance to become deeply conversant with an iconic British novel and also as an experiment in slow reading and in rereading. We will engage with questions of literary form and formal close-reading, of cultural and biographical contexts, of publishing and reception history, and of changing critical and theoretical perspectives. Students will take a midterm exam, design and conduct part of a class session, and write a final research essay. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing, ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course examines Pacific literature written in English since the early 20th century, attending to Oceania’s literary histories and experiences of colonialism and globalization. Students will engage with innovative Pacific novelists, short story writers and poets, who meditate on resistance, migration and anticolonialism in their works. Throughout we will ask: what narrative forms have emerged in response to the self-determination movements of the Pacific region? What role have gendered, racial and migrant identities played in the poetry of the Pacific diaspora? Readings may include works by Epeli Hau‘ofa, Patricia Grace, Hone Tuwhare, Craig Santos Perez, Albert Wendt, Sia Figiel, Kathy Jetnil-Kijiner, Robert Sullivan, Tusiata Avia and Selina Tusitala Marsh. Students will learn how to place Pacific authors within their historical and cultural contexts as well as develop their understanding of concepts such as postcolonialism and indigenous sovereignty. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement of the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

Henry V's resident stage-Irishman, MacMorris, poses the pressing postcolonial question, "What ish my nation?" -- a concern that grows urgent for Irish writers at the beginning of the 20th century. This course will examine the mutually informing emergence of an independent Irish state and a modern Irish literature and will analyze the evolution of postcolonial Irish culture. Focusing on texts from the "Celtic Revival," the revolutionary and Civil War era, the Free State, and present-day Eire, we will analyze literature's dialogue with its historical moment and with its cultural inheritance. We will consider multiple genres (drama, poetry, fiction and film) and such writers as Yeats, Augusta Gregory, J.M. Synge, James Joyce, Padraic Pearse, Sean O'Casey, Elizabeth Bowen, Flann O'Brien, Seamus Heaney, Brian Friel, Eavan Boland, Colm Tóibin and Conor McPherson. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

What makes and defines a city? Is there an essence that unites Tulsa and Tokyo or Rio de Janeiro and Riga? What happens if we shift our gaze, instead, to comparing New York, Delhi and Shanghai? Some of the characteristics that make these three cities similar include their cosmopolitanism, their renown as economic and political hubs, and their location as sites of cultural activity. In contrast with Tulsa and Riga, then, these cities become global cities. Since the 1990s, globalization theorists have increasingly focused on the city as the site of contestation between the local and the global. In this course, we will read cultural and literary texts that challenge and complicate how we read cities: between exemplifying the nation in a microcosm and embodying globality. Some of the writers we read in this course may include Teju Cole, Orhan Pamuk, Monica Ali, China Miéville, and Jeet Thayil. Students should contact the instructor to find out what specific texts will be adopted. This counts toward the post-1900 and approaches to literary study requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291.

This course will focus on the American short story since 1900. The story is not simply a shorter fictional narrative than the novel. It is a genre with a distinct pedigree. For the first three-quarters of the 20th century, writing short stories for commercial venues such as the "Saturday Evening Post," the "New Yorker," and even "Playboy" offered financial support to many authors while they were also writing novels or screenplays. Hemingway, Fitzgerald and Porter are just a few examples. More recently, creative writing workshops and university-based M.F.A. programs have proliferated, and the short form, ideal for workshop discussion, received new life. Finally, throughout the last century, the short story was often also the site for counter-narratives and other experimentation. In this course, we will read five or six stories each week. We often will read multiple examples by the same author. And though each week will concentrate on stories largely from the same era, there will be significant differences in styles, subjects, and technique. We will discuss how the stories work, how the authors' themes and techniques develop over time, and how they influenced each other. As the semester progresses, students will assume increasing responsibility for leading discussions. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

For at least 100 years now, novelists have experimented with ways to make fiction "modern," to make it better able to reflect and resist the perils and pleasures of modernity. This course explores the ways they have done so, tracing the evolution of the modern novel from its origins in the realist fiction of the 19th century to its contemporary incarnations. We will consider such authors as Thomas Hardy, Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, E. M. Forster, Zora Neale Hurston, William Faulkner, Anthony Burgess and Salman Rushdie. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course is a reading of African fiction since the middle of the 20th century, focusing on the way Africa's cultural traditions, historical problems and political objectives have revised and resisted Western narrative forms. What narrative forms develop as a result of the machinations of power in modern Africa? How, for example, does the need to present historical information and political argument to the broadest possible local audience favor realism and popular styles? How has the globalization of the African novel complicated questions of genre, style, and even the very category of African fiction? Some of the topics that the course will touch upon may include the impact of modernization on traditional life, the transmission of oral culture into literary form, the impact of external patronage on local literary cultures, the influence of writers educated abroad on literature at home, the result of the African effort to "decolonize" literary forms of expression, and the transnational turn in African fiction, and newer movements in African literature including Afro-Futurism. The thematic focus of the course may vary from year to year; students should contact the instructor to find out what specific focus and texts that will be adopted. In addition to plays, short stories, and novels, we will read selections from critical and nonfiction works. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing; or ENGL 210-291; or permission of instructor.

Contemporary literary fiction from Africa, South Asia and the Caribbean is often referred to as postcolonial. This course proposes another category: the Global South. One immediate consequence of such categorization is that these literatures might be framed not only in relation to Western Europe but in dialogue with each other. Looking at the Global South novel as a genre enables us to move outside the boundaries of national literatures and regional specificity while seeing their interconnectedness. In this course, we will read texts that travel and draw different geographies and histories into relation with each other. At the same time, we will begin defining the parameters of the Global South novel and its difference from postcolonial and world literature. In addition to a range of critical and theoretical texts, we may read the following novels: Laila Lalami's “The Moor's Account,” Sunjeev Sahota's “The Year of the Runaways,” Achmat Dangor's “Bitter Fruit,” and Kerry Young's “Pao,” among others. This counts toward the post-1900 or the approaches to literary study requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

Exile, Edward Said writes, is the unhealable rift forced between a human being and a native place, between the self and its true home: its essential sadness can never be surmounted. What is it about leaving one’s native home that evokes this essential sadness? Is a native place always a true home? What are the social, cultural, emotional, and political challenges that accompany leaving home as well as arriving in a new country? What does it mean to return home as a member of the diasporic community abroad? How do we distinguish between the various types of migrations -- exile, refugee, expatriate, and émigré? How do writers imagine the various hybridity -- linguistic, cultural, religious, gender, and sexual -- that result from these complicated crossings? We will interrogate these questions related to diasporic living, through an examination of an array of literary and theoretical writings. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

In this course we will examine works of modern authors from English- and French-speaking (in translation) Canada, as well as works by native Canadian writers, some who choose to write in either of the two "official" languages. We will consider issues of national identity both within an officially bilingual, multicultural Canada, and within a North American context -- Canadians defining themselves in relation to a powerful neighbor to the south. We will thus begin by focusing on Canadian writers, filmmakers and musicians as they characterize that border or "medicine line" along which so many Canadians choose to live, against which so much of Canadian identity is defined, and over which they constantly trespass. In the process, we also will examine the many ways in which Canadians characterize the United States and Americans. We will concentrate on writers (Margaret Atwood, Michael Ondaatje, Alice Munro, Gabrielle Roy, Leonard Cohen) who have very self-consciously, and from very different perspectives, contributed to the task of defining what constitutes Canadian culture, the Canadian multicultural "mosaic." Some of Canada's most renowned poets also are musicians. We also will hear from them. And, as some of Canada's strongest representations of cultural difference have appeared in the form of films sponsored by the National Film Board of Canada and Telefilm Canada, we will view and study some of these in relation to the literary works we will be reading. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

The course offers an exploration of literary texts from writers based in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh and/or the South Asian diaspora. It examines how South Asia as a category is imagined and evoked, as well as how the literary classification changes the way we approach and read the text. To what extent is a reading of a text bound with the national literary canon? In what ways are literary texts informed by the social, historical and political conditions while also participating in the transformation of the public sphere? What are the ways in which South Asian writers articulate a specifically postcolonial imaginary within a global discourse? What, indeed, counts as a South Asian text? In addition to poems, plays, short stories, and novels, we will read critical and nonfiction works. Topics to be examined in the course may include borders and locations, traumas and triumphs of decolonization, formation of the national canon and articulation of identity within and outside the nation. The thematic focus of the course may vary from year to year students should contact the instructor to ascertain the specific focus and texts that will be adopted. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

"I celebrate myself and sing myself, / And what I shall assume you shall assume," asserts Walt Whitman. Emily Dickinson queries, "I'm Nobody -- who are you?" This course will focus in depth on the poetic works of these two 19th-century American poets, paying attention to the development of their distinctive poetry and their careers, their publication history and reception, the relationship between their work and lives, and their influence on subsequent generations of writers. We will pay particular attention to their formal innovations and poetic principles. Students will write weekly response papers, including projects in poetic imitation, and two longer (nine-to-12 page) essays. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course traces American women's authorship between the 1840s and the early 1900s from a multi-ethnic perspective, from Margaret Fuller's feminist manifesto "Woman in the 19th Century" in 1845, to Elizabeth Keckley's autobiographical account of her work as a seamstress for the Lincoln White House in 1868, to Edith Wharton's heartbreaking "The House of Mirth" (1905). Focusing on literature selected to provide a wide exposure to the study of U.S. female writers, the course sets each author within her historical context and examines the ways in which the texts address issues of race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, sexuality, class and other identity categories pertinent to the definition of American-ness. Is there such a category as American women's writing? And, if so, how might we define its national and generic parameters? The course explores these questions through biographical and critical lenses currently under debate in this field, such as separate spheres, true womanhood, republican motherhood, sentimentalism and manifest domesticity, among others. The course provides students with a solid foundation in some of the most well known but also some of the least studied texts written by 19th-century American female authors. This counts towards the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course covers major United States fiction from roughly 1840-1900. We will concern ourselves with the fictional representations of an emerging national identity, focusing on such questions as the individual's relation to nature, westward expansion, slavery, the Civil War and its aftermath. In doing so we will be particularly interested in the development of fiction as a literary form, considering the relation of fictional romance to literary realism and then taking up the question of aesthetic form as realism is elaborated later in the century. One important issue to be considered is why the novel plays such an important role in developing conceptions of U.S. identity during the period. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

In this course, students will study the fashion in which the concept of race becomes a powerful influence on U.S. literature between 1800 and 1900. We will think extensively about the relation between the attempt to produce a national literature and the conundrum presented by race. Beginning with literary precursors in the 17th and 18th centuries (e.g., Puritan captivity narratives), we will work our way through authors such as Thomas Jefferson, James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain and Charles Chesnutt among others. As we do this, students will study how national identity influences literary production and how that production forges national identity. As they study this reciprocal relation, students will also gain a familiarity with basic concepts in critical race theory. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course serves as an introduction to the literature in English of Latin American and U.S. Latino(a) writers. Through both written works and films, we examine the themes, critical issues, styles and forms that characterize the literature of this "other" America. The course expands the notion of what is widely considered as "American" literature by examining works (some originally written in English and others translated into English) produced in both the hemispheric and U.S. contexts of "America." We begin with the Cuban Alejo Carpentier, the Colombian Gabriel García Márquez and the Mexican Laura Esquivel, using rhetorical and cultural analysis to discuss how issues of colonization, slavery, the clash of cultures and U.S. intervention are represented within the texts. We then migrate north into the United States to read essays by Gloria Anzaldúa and Chérrie Moraga, poetry by Miguel Piñero, and a memoir of migration by Esmeralda Santiago. These and other texts help us to explore questions such as: What general similarities and differences can we identify between Latin American and Latino(a) literature? How are individual and national identities constructed in popular films by Latin Americans, and by U.S. filmmakers about Latino(a)s? Is there a difference between Hispanic and Latino(a)? This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

This course is a general introduction to major American novels from 1900 to 1955. Our central question will be: How is American national identity imagined and represented in fiction? We also will consider the relation between a general national identity and various regional identities in the South or the Midwestern prairie. Are these identities more in conflict or in concert? The course will investigate how national identity also can be connected with other forms of identity, such as race, class and gender. We also will interest ourselves in the craft of the authors under consideration including Theodore Dreiser, Edith Wharton, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Willa Cather, William Faulkner, John Dos Passos and Ralph Ellison. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major and the American studies major/concentration. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

The young Robert Lowell, before he attended Kenyon, wrote to Ezra Pound, "If the 20th century is to realize a great art comparable to that of Chaucer or Shakespeare, the foundation will have to be your poems." James Wright, some years later, wrote his Kenyon honors thesis on "The Will in the Thought and Art of Thomas Hardy." This course offers a sampling of contemporary American poets of the generation of Lowell and Wright and later generations, including Ashbery, Bishop, Gunn, Jarrell, Merrill, O'Hara, Plath, Olson, Ginsberg, Duncan, Rich and Baraka. We will pay particular attention to their dynamic and widely varying relationships with the traditions they inherited and transformed, and we also will attempt to locate their poems within social and political as well as aesthetic contexts. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

Pleasurable doesn't seem like a word that would apply to the harrowing story of a mother who kills her child rather than allow her to be enslaved. Yet Toni Morrison, consummate artist and Nobel laureate, writes prose so beautiful that one could describe reading such a story as, in some sense, pleasurable, even as this beauty deepens the powerful and sometimes painful effect of her words. In this class we will read most of Morrison's novels, some of her short fiction, and some of her critical work. We will discuss the craft involved in the creation of Morrison's stunning prose, Morrison's position relative to both American and African-American literary canons, as well as the themes of Morrison's literature, including (but not limited to): race, gender and love (familial, amorous, platonic and, perhaps most importantly, self). This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major and the African diaspora studies concentration, as well as the women's and gender studies major/concentration. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

"The 20th century is much more splendid than the 19th century." Wrote Gertrude Stein in "Picasso." "It is a time when everything cracks, where everything is destroyed, everything isolates itself, it is a more splendid thing than a period where everything follows itself. So then the 20th century is a splendid period. Not a reasonable one in the scientific sense, but splendid." This course provides a survey of American poets exploding onto the literary scene in the early 20th century: Stein, Masters, Pound, Eliot, Williams, H. D., Moore, Stevens, Toomer and Frost. We will consider ways in which this poetry, as Stein might suggest, splendidly cracks conventions of poetic representation, narrative, form, voice and genre to explore what it might mean to be "modern." This course will conclude with a consideration of issues of canon-formation -- and cracks in the canon. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

W.E.B. DuBois famously observed that the "problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line,--the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men..." While one might debate whether that was truly "the" problem of the twentieth century, it certainly proved to be a prominent theme in African-American literature. African-American literature also often turned its gaze inward, reflecting on what it might mean to be a race, and how "the race" might improve its condition. This course will focus on African-American literature written between 1900 and 2000. Subjects considered may include the literature of the Harlem Renaissance, the literature of racial "passing," African-American literature since World War II, the political implications of marriage for a group once legally denied it, and African-American literary feminism. The central questions to be examined may include: Is there a distinctive African-American literary tradition? Are there multiple traditions? How does a body of literature demarked by "race" become inflected by conceptions of gender, ethnicity, social class, or sexual orientation? What are the significant relations between African-American literature and other overlapping literary traditions? What does it mean to speak of identity in literature? This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 103 or 104. Offered every year.

This course posits that gender and sexuality do not merely intersect with Native American indigenous cultures but are produced by and through them. In the course, we will explore the complex relationships among gender, sexuality and tribal sovereignty, beginning with such questions as: How did European invasion of the Americas affect the traditionally high status of Native women in their own communities? And, what is the relationship between the imposition of European gender binaries and sovereign self-definition? We will focus on the ways Native women and Two Spirit writers represent their cultures in novels, poetry, memoir and film. Texts for the course will likely include Ella Deloria's "Waterlily," Louise Erdrich's "Tracks," Deborah Miranda's "Bad Indians," the anthology Sovereign Erotics: A Collection of Two-Spirit Literature," and the films "Soft Things," "Hard Things" and "Two Spirit." Critical readings will focus on such topics as Indigenous literary nationalism, trauma and queer indigeneity. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major and the women's and gender studies concentration. Prerequisite: junior standing or ENGL 210-291 or permission of instructor.

In Zora Neale Hurston's novel "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Nanny observes that African American women are "de mule uh de world." Her response to this situation is to marry her granddaughter to a man whose wealth might take Janie off her feet. Janie, in contrast, wants a man whose charm will sweep her off her feet. To what extent do historical circumstances, expressed in this case as generational differences, shape the meaning of marriage for African American women? What other kinds of hopes are invested in the institution of marriage in African American women's writing (and lives)? When might marriage cease to be regarded as a viable avenue for expanding African American women's opportunities? How do African American authors negotiate the loaded issue of African American female sexuality both within and outside of marriage? What circumstances could make death an African American mother's greatest gift, as in Toni Morrison's novel "Sula," for example? What circumstances could make abandonment a generous gesture, as in Harriet Jacobs' "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl?" These are just a handful of the questions that will stimulate our discussion over the course of the semester. Note: Though the texts in this course span from 1861 to 1991, this counts toward the post-1900 requirement. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing; or ENGL 210-291; or permission of instructor.

Designed to take full advantage of the rich historical and cultural heritage of the British Isles, the Kenyon-Exeter Seminar focuses on two different themes: "plays in production" and "literature and landscape." "Plays in production" focuses on the drama, stagecraft, history and culture of British theater. Students see and study 15 to 20 plays ranging from works by Shakespeare and other Renaissance and classical dramatists to the most avant-garde of contemporary writers; from “original practices” at London’s Globe Theatre to “immersive theater” in London warehouses to cutting-edge productions staged by boundary-defying companies. The goal is to trace the actual process of production from play-text to cultural reception all across Britain's theatrical history, in the context of close classroom attention to the theory and practice of performance. "Literature and landscape" integrates analysis of literary texts with study of the distinctive geographic and social landscapes that inspired and shaped them. This part of the course balances literary study with travel throughout England and the British Isles. Subjects include the poetry and journals of William and Dorothy Wordsworth in the context of their surroundings in the Lake District and elsewhere; William Butler Yeats’ poetic reinvention of the Irish landscape; the country-house tradition of Chatsworth and Stourhead as it helped determine Jane Austen’s approach to questions of property and community; and the complex social and cultural history of London legible in the work of writers ranging from William Blake to Charles Dickens to Zadie Smith. This part of the course also centers on an extended sojourn across a broad region of Britain or Ireland--typically, one to two weeks in Scotland’s Highlands and cities or in the Republic of Ireland. Other sites include Dartmoor, Bath, Lyme Regis, Stonehenge, Tintagel, and many more, all with a view toward immersion in the worlds of British literature. This course meets two half-units of any of the department’s distribution requirements, as confirmed by the course’s instructor. Prerequisite: Current enrollment in the Kenyon-Exeter Program.

Designed to take full advantage of the rich historical and cultural heritage of the British Isles, the Kenyon-Exeter Seminar focuses on two different themes: "plays in production" and "literature and landscape." "Plays in production" focuses on the drama, stagecraft, history and culture of British theater. Students see and study 15 to 20 plays ranging from works by Shakespeare and other Renaissance and classical dramatists to the most avant-garde of contemporary writers; from “original practices” at London’s Globe Theatre to “immersive theater” in London warehouses to cutting-edge productions staged by boundary-defying companies. The goal is to trace the actual process of production from play-text to cultural reception all across Britain's theatrical history, in the context of close classroom attention to the theory and practice of performance. "Literature and landscape" integrates analysis of literary texts with study of the distinctive geographic and social landscapes that inspired and shaped them. This part of the course balances literary study with travel throughout England and the British Isles. Subjects include the poetry and journals of William and Dorothy Wordsworth in the context of their surroundings in the Lake District and elsewhere; William Butler Yeats’ poetic reinvention of the Irish landscape; the country-house tradition of Chatsworth and Stourhead as it helped determine Jane Austen’s approach to questions of property and community; and the complex social and cultural history of London legible in the work of writers ranging from William Blake to Charles Dickens to Zadie Smith. This part of the course also centers on an extended sojourn across a broad region of Britain or Ireland--typically, one to two weeks in Scotland’s Highlands and cities or in the Republic of Ireland. Other sites include Dartmoor, Bath, Lyme Regis, Stonehenge, Tintagel, and many more, all with a view toward immersion in the worlds of British literature. This course meets two half-units of any of the department’s distribution requirements, as confirmed by the course’s instructor. Only open to participants in the Kenyon-Exeter Program.

In recent years, there has been a renaissance of science writing for the common reader that combines literary and scientific merit: from Stephen Hawking's "A Brief History of Time" to Oliver Sacks' "The Man Who Mistook His Wife for A Hat", from Dava Sobel's "Longitude" to Rebecca Skloot's "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks," a series of books that explore scientific questions in a style that transcends the conventions of academic science writing or popular history have brought important questions from physics, biology, chemistry, neuroscience, and mathematics to wider public attention. Short form science journalism has become one of the most important areas of literary nonfiction, recognized both by annual awards from the American Association for the Advancement of Science and two different series of Best of American Science Writing anthologies. This interdisciplinary science writing course will combine literary analysis of exemplary essays on scientific topics with a writing workshop that requires students to do close observation of scientific processes, conduct independent research and interviews, interpret data, and present scientific information in highly readable form. Weekly readings will be selected from prize-winning science essays and the Best of American Science and Nature Writing series. We may also read one book-length work of science writing. Weekly writing assignments will include journals, observational accounts of science experiments, exercises in interpreting scientific data, interviews, narratives and a substantial research essay. This counts toward the approaches to literary study or post-1900 requirements for the major. No prerequisite.

This seminar is required for English majors pursuing an emphasis in creative writing. The course will involve critical work on a topic chosen by the instructor (such as "Reliable and Unreliable: Investigating Narrative Voice," "Beginnings and Endings," "The Little Magazine in America" and "Documentary Poetics") to provide context and structure for students' creative work. Students should check online listings for the specific focus of each section. Although not primarily a workshop, this seminar will require students to work on a substantial creative project (fiction, nonfiction or poetry). Senior English majors pursuing an emphasis in literature are required to take ENGL 410 instead. Students pursuing honors will take ENGL 497 rather than the Senior Seminar. Prerequisite: senior standing and English major. Offered every year.

This seminar will require students to undertake a research paper of their own design, within the context of a course that ranges across genres, literary periods and national borders. Students will study literary works within a variety of critical, historical, cultural and theoretical contexts. All sections of the course will seek to extend the range of interpretive strategies students can use to undertake a major literary research project. Each student will complete a research paper of 15 to 17 pages. Senior English majors pursuing an emphasis in literature are required to take instead ENGL 405. Students pursuing honors will take ENGL 497 rather than ENGL 410. Prerequisite: senior standing and English major or permission of instructor. Offered every year.

Memory is the mother of the muses because, as Vladimir Nabokov once noted, all art must work with materials that Mnemosyne, with mysterious foresight has stored up and made available. That gathering up implies, however, that the memory-work of creation is always double, for the creative spirit necessarily consigns to oblivion vastly more material than it ever retains. In this seminar we will study the double life of memory and forgetting by surveying ancient mythology and philosophy (Hesiod, Homer, Plato, Aristotle) the tension between oral and written literature, the rhetorical tradition of memory palaces (Cicero and others), the Christian Middle Ages (Saint Augustine), and finally some modern theorists (Nietzsche, Foucault) and practitioners (Proust and Nabokov). This counts toward the approaches to literary study or the post-1900 requirements for the major. Permission of instructor required.

From "The Maltese Falcon" to "Pulp Fiction", the hard-boiled crime novel and film noir have explored the dark side of the American Dream. This course will examine the cultural history of "noir" style and its influence on the literature and film of postwar America. Readings will begin with classic texts by authors such as Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, James Cain and Jim Thompson, then examine the influence of noir style on such "literary" texts as Faulkner's "Sanctuary," Wright's "Native Son," Warren's "All the King's Men," Capote's "In Cold Blood" and DeLillo's "Libra." By doing so, the course will explore such issues as the relationship between popular and high culture, the politics of literary and cinematic style, the role of the femme fatale in recent gender theory, and the cultural history of the anti-hero as both a commercial product in American popular culture and an expression of literary dissent. The course includes a mandatory film series, tracking the development of film noir as a cinematic style, as well as extensive readings in literary and film theory. This counts toward the approaches to literary study requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

We will undertake an intensive investigation of Shakespeare's major tragedies -- "Hamlet," "Othello," "King Lear" and "Macbeth" -- as enduring literary and dramatic legacies and as products of a unique cultural and historical moment. How do the tragedies emerge from the landscape of early modern London and in the context of contemporaneous non-Shakespearean drama? What do the plays tell us about the Jacobean theater and the printing house? How do these dramas compare with early tragedies such as "Romeo and Juliet" and "Julius Caesar?" How do the tragedies negotiate religious, racial, cultural and gender difference? Does a coherent Shakespearean theory of tragedy emerge? What is the literary afterlife of these plays? Substantial independent work and full seminar participation are required. This counts toward the pre-1700 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

This course will focus on the works of Jane Austen -- from a selection of her juvenilia, through the six major novels, to the unfinished "Sanditon." Additional texts for the course will include Austen's letters and a biography of the author. The class will consider film adaptations of Austen's novels, both as these films are positioned within and as they escape from the nostalgia industry of costume drama. Austen's works will be situated formally in relation to the novel of sensibility, the "Bildungsroman", the comic novel, the tradition of the romance genre, and the development of free indirect discourse. Her novels also will be considered in relation to the late 18th-century development of feminism, controversies over women's education and the formulation of the separate sexual spheres. Ultimately, the course will address how an author who claimed to work with "so fine a Brush" on a "little bit (two Inches wide) of Ivory" responded to such major historical events as the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, English radicalism and the abolition of the slave trade. This counts toward the 1700-1900 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

This course examines the novels, stories, essays, letters and diaries of Virginia Woolf, seen as contributions to Modernist aesthetics, feminist theory, narrative form, the history of sexuality, avant-garde culture, English literary history and literary psychology. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

Language, race, history, commodity culture, gender, narratology, imperialism, decolonization, sexuality: If the list reads like an encyclopedia of modern/postmodern preoccupations, it's because the text it references -- James Joyce's "Ulysses" -- stands at the de-centered center of so many discussions of 20th-century culture. With a brief review of "Dubliners" and "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" as our preamble, we will spend the majority of our seminar following Leopold Bloom through the Dublin day that left its traces on so many aspects of modern and postmodern culture. In the process, we will engage several of the major theoretical paradigms that shape contemporary literary studies. A course in Modernism/ modernity, the novel as genre, literary theory, Irish literature or Irish history is highly reccomended. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

In this course we will examine the works of two of the most internationally recognized Canadian writers: Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje. Both have won the prestigious Booker Prize. Both have had their works translated into a variety of media (film, drama, opera). Their works have come to be emblematic of the Canadian postmodern, and both authors have worked at defining Canadian identity -- its mosaic assemblage of subject positions, from colonial to postcolonial. We will read a wide selection of their writings, which engage issues of postmodernism, postcolonialism, the Canadian long poem, the documentary collage and the relationship between history and fiction and between literature and film. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

How do indigenous writers bear witness to history? How are they influenced by concerns of community, audience and tradition? These are some of the questions we will consider in this exploration of poetry by contemporary Native American writers. We will read works by major poets such as Simon Ortiz "Acoma Pueblo," Linda Hogan "Chickasaw," Joy Harjo "Muskogee," Carter Revard "Osage" and Diane Glancy "Cherokee," as well as from the emerging generation. We'll view taped interviews and two films, Sherman Alexie's "The Business of Fancy Dancing," based on his poetry collection of the same name, and Cedar Sherbert's "Gesture Down," based on the poetry of James Welch. Other secondary materials will include memoirs and essays written by the poets, as well as readings in contemporary poetics and indigenous theory. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major. Permission of instructor required.

The mulatto balances precariously on the razor-thin edge of the color line between black and white. In the antebellum era, the mulatto's proximity to whiteness made the mulatto an attractive object for abolitionist sympathy. In the Jim Crow era, that proximity made the mulatto a threat to the security of white privilege. In our present moment, this figure has all but disappeared, though it seems to be re-emerging in a new form with Tiger Woods, Cablinasian and Vin Diesel, "multiracial movie star." This course will explore representations of the mulatto in American fiction and culture. In addition to reading some great works of literature, by authors such as William Faulkner, Nella Larsen, Charles Chesnutt and Mark Twain (to name only a few), we will use our discussions about the trope of the mulatto to consider some of the more perplexing theoretical issues concerning race in America. We'll begin with concerns generated specifically by the mulatto, such as passing (the "problem" of the racially ambiguous body), racial allegiance, biological determinism (nature/nurture), hybrid degeneracy and the mulatto's "tragic" marginality. From there, we'll move to the big questions, including, but not limited to: What is race? What is its determining factor: physical features, ancestry, culture? Can it be chosen or rejected? The course will concentrate on fiction of the Jim Crow era, a period of particularly intense struggle over the significance of race, but may also draw on other disciplines, such as science and law, and other historical moments. This counts toward the post-1900 requirement for the major and the African diaspora studies concentration. Permission of instructor required.

Individual study in English is a privilege reserved for senior majors who want to pursue a course of reading or complete a writing project on a topic not regularly offered in the curriculum. Because individual study is one option in a rich and varied English curriculum, it is intended to supplement, not take the place of, coursework, and it cannot normally be used to fulfill requirements for the major. An IS will earn the student 0.5 units of credit, although in special cases it may be designed to earn 0.25 units. To qualify to enroll in an individual study, a student must identify a member of the English department willing to direct the project. In consultation with that faculty member, the student must write a one-to two page proposal for the IS that the department chair must approve before the IS can go forward. The chair’s approval is required to ensure that no single faculty member becomes overburdened by directing too many IS courses. In the proposal, the student should provide a preliminary bibliography (and/or set of specific problems, goals and tasks) for the course, outline a specific schedule of reading and/or writing assignments, and describe in some detail the methods of assessment (e.g., a short story to be submitted for evaluation biweekly; a thirty-page research paper submitted at course’s end, with rough drafts due at given intervals). Students should also briefly describe any prior coursework that particularly qualifies them for their proposed individual studies. The department expects IS students to meet regularly with their instructors for at least one hour per week, or the equivalent, at the discretion of the instructor. The amount of work submitted for a grade in an IS should approximate at least that required, on average, in 400-level English courses. In the case of group individual studies, a single proposal may be submitted, assuming that all group members will follow the same protocols. Because students must enroll for individual studies by the seventh class day of each semester, they should begin discussion of their proposed individual study well in advance, preferably the semester before, so that there is time to devise the proposal and seek departmental approval before the established deadline.

This seminar, required for students in the Honors Program, will relate works of criticism and theory to various literary texts, which may include several of those covered on the honors exam. The course seeks to extend the range of interpretive strategies available to the student as he or she begins a major independent project in English literature or creative writing. The course is limited to students with a 3.33 GPA overall, a 3.5 cumulative GPA in English and the intention to become an honors candidate in English. Enrollment limited to senior English majors in the Honors Program; exceptions by permission of the instructor. Undertaken in the fall semester; students register with the Senior Honors form as well as the individual study form. Permission of instructor and department chair required.

This seminar, required for students in the Honors Program, will relate works of criticism and theory to various literary texts, which may include several of those covered on the honors exam. The course seeks to extend the range of interpretive strategies available to the student as he or she begins a major independent project in English literature or creative writing. The course is limited to students with a 3.33 GPA overall, a 3.5 cumulative GPA in English and the intention to become an honors candidate in English. Enrollment limited to senior English majors in the Honors Program; exceptions by permission of the instructor. Undertaken in the spring semester; students register with the Senior Honors form. Permission of instructor and department chair required.